SIDDHANTA PANJARA - Chapter Seven
[A Basket of Philosophical Conclusions]
135. Disciple: Master, the all-powerful Lord, I desire to hear in brief the tenets of all the schools of philosophy. Graciously tell me everything soon.
136. Preceptor: On careful observation (we note that) there are two kinds of philosophy in this world – the Vedic and the non-Vedic. Know this distinction.
137. Tarka, Samkhya and Mimamsa – these three are Vedic, since they are found to be based on the Vedas, when examined carefully.
138. Lokayata, Arhata (Jain) and Bauddha are the three non-Vedic Schools, since they are based on (mere) statements. Thus there are six schools.
139. The foremost among non-Vedic is the materialist Charvaka, criticizing all opponents. It accepts only perception as the means of valid knowledge, the other Pramanas being included in it.
140. 'Food is that which removes hunger, because it is food, unlike non-food' – this type of inference is only perception.
141. Perception is the source of other Pramanas, hence for those with discriminative intelligence perception alone is sufficient.
142. Air, fire, water and earth – these four are the objects of knowledge; there is no ether at all.
143-144. Deities like Brahma, regions like the heaven and merit, sin etc., which are not
perceptible do not exist since they are not known through the means of valid knowledge (i.e., perception). Therefore only that which is known through Pramana is here accepted as object of knowledge.
145. The body alone is the knower, since there is the experience 'I am fat', 'I am lean', and the body is the substratum of life.
146. Just as by combining betel leaf, areca-nut and churna (calcium carbonate), a red colour is formed, so also by the combination of the (four) elements life is produced.
147. The four elements can naturally appear in the form of the body and disappear also as the body, again and again.
148. For people wealth and pleasure form the values of life (Purusarthas); heavenly enjoyment is sumptuous feast and the company of young girls (of sixteen years).
149-150. Final liberation is said to be death and bondage is life. The Agnihotra ritual,
the Vedas, the triple Tripundra (mark on the forehead), the smearing (of ash) etc., are said to be the means of livelihood for the fools who cannot use their intelligence. This is the essence of their tenets.
151. Having understood well this theory of the materialist Charvaka, now listen O pupil, to the tenets of the Arhatas (Jains), next in the order, which is also to be given up.
152. Means of valid knowledge are considered to be two according to them, perception and inference; the objects of knowledge are those obtained by these Pramanas and are given (below).
153. There is something different from the body; it is the knower. According to some the knower is the life (Jiva), atomic in nature.
154. Just as the atoms of the flames of a light reveal objects like the pot nearby, in the same way the knower reveals the entire body.
155. Merit, demerit etc., exist, so also regions like the heaven. The Agnihotra ritual and the like are demerits (Adharma), since they involve violence.
156. Meritorious acts consist of wearing peacock feathers, avoiding other dresses, cutting off the hair, taking to alms and continence.
157. Obeisance to the Arhat sage, Yogic practices in the midst of the five fires, vows, fasting, disciplined life, pure ablution etc.
158. Vedas are not valid means of knowledge, since they are not the words of a reliable person; hence the rituals ordained by the Vedas are only apparently meritorious.
159. The wise should perform sacrifice by (killing) animals and eat the remaining flesh and in the Sautramani sacrifice he should drink Sura liquor for the purification of the body.
160. 'One should have sexual union with one's wife during the proper period daily (after the menses)' – these are the types of sentences one finds in the first part (of the Vedas).
161. 'No animal should be killed, meat should not be eaten, Sura liquor should not be taken and one should not approach a woman out of lust'.
162. Such sentences are found in the latter part of the Vedas. When such is the case, I shall give a special inference:
163. 'Vedas are not authoritative for all in deciding what is true and what is false, because they are self-contradictory, like the words of a mad man'.
164. 'The human skull is pure. Because it is part of a living being, like the conch'. – Such inferential sentences can be used towards the Vedic people.
165. This universe consisting of the existent and the non-existent is produced by the atoms; it has many-sided reality – realizing this one may obtain liberation.
166. The many-sidedness of reality is obtained through the sevenfold points of view. I shall explain the points of view of the seven modes, very difficult for the debaters.
167. When asked by the virtuous and non-attached pupil as to whether this universe consisting of the animate and the inanimate does exist, the perfect teacher tells him thus:
168. That which has birth etc., will have an end; hence it is not certain that this universe has existence.
169. 'Does it not exist then ?' thus asked, the teacher says, 'Since it is always being experienced it is not certain that it does not exist'.
170. 'Sir, is it inexpressible ?' – thus being asked, he says, 'Since it is being expressed by words like pot, it is not certain that it is inexpressible'.
171. Later when asked by the great pupil who knows the Pramanas, 'Is the universe both existent and non-existent', he replies:
172. 'The words "exist" and "does not exist" cannot apply to the same case; therefore it is not certain that it is both existent and non-existent.'
173. '(Do you mean that) it exists, but is indescribable ?' Thus asked, he tells him, 'Since the universe is an effect, its non-existence is assumed'.
174. 'But it is also certain that it can be described as blue, yellow, etc. Hence it is not certain that it exists, but is indescribable.'
175-176. 'Is it then non-existent and indescribable ?' Being asked thus by the
intelligent student, that teacher tells him, 'I am not definite about that. Since it is being experienced, it is not definite that it does not exist'.
177. 'The universe is not understood as non-existent and indescribable; O teacher can it be that it is both existent and non-existent, as well as indescribable ?'
178. Thus being asked by the pupil, the teacher replies, 'By the arguments already given it is clear that it cannot be definitely stated to be thus'.
179. 'It is not definite that it is existent, non-existent and indescribable. Thus by the seven modes of the points of view, reality is shown to be many-sided'.
180. Hence speakers should not consider that there is only one point of view. Thus having a clear knowledge and with the help of Yogic practices and by meritorious actions, as well as the grace of the teacher.
181. A man attains liberation which is always a movement upwards. This is the essence of the teachings.
182(a). At the stage when proper consideration is not made, this is assumed to be
182(b). Thus understanding properly the tenets of the Jaina school,
183. Now listen to the views of the Buddhists for avoiding any confusion in the mind. This (Buddhist) view is assumed to be fourfold on the basis of the (four) different disciples (of the Buddha).
184. Of these Madhyamika is the eldest, Yogachara is the second, the third disciple is held to be Sautrantika,
185. and the fourth is Vibhasika. This is the order of sequence of the disciples. Their views on the Pramana are like those of the Jains; so also (their views) on the Vedas.
186. On other topics there is difference; I shall tell their nature. Among them Madhyamika considers the knower to be of the nature of void.
187. What is true is that which remains when all the senses cease to operate; and the elimination of (the working of) the senses is only in deep sleep for all beings.
188. The appearance at that time is only for the void, to be sure. To one who is in deep sleep, there is (the feeling known from) recollection 'I am vacuous'.
189. Hence to those with discrimination, the knower is of the nature of void. And in all schools of thought it is said that the knower is the substratum of the knowledge.
190. The Pramana is void, because of the relationship of the substratum and the object (between the knower and the knowledge). The Pramana has production and destruction again and again.
191. And this feature is not for the Real; hence it is concluded that Pramana is void. The object of Pramana is considered to be Prameya.
192(a). Therefore, considering the arguments given above, the objects of knowledge is
192(b)-193. It is because of the lack of thought that all people have always the
experience of reality in them, though it is definite that they are unreal just as Maya is assumed to be indescribable (Durghata).
194. So also indescribability is assumed for this phenomenal power (Samvrita Sakti). It is due to this power that the feeling of reality is produced.
195-197. Hence it is concluded that all the three beginning with the knower (i.e., the
knower, the knowledge and the objects) are void. To the good one who serves, through mind, body and action, the sage named Sugata, the teacher of philosophical tenets worshipped through the five judgments, liberation in the form of complete void, is obtained through great effort when his vacuous mind has calmed down. This is the conclusion of Sage Buddha, who proclaims the reality for the void.
198. Now understand the conclusions of the other Buddhists. According to them there is the ideation store (Alaya Vijnana) and Prakasadvaya.
199. The knower is not a void; it is a higher being different from the body; because of the common parlance of all people 'This is my body'.
200. And because of the inference, 'The body is not the self, because it is visible, like the pot' and when the body is dead, it becomes inert; and also because of the experience 'I am born'.
201. It is assumed that the ideation store is different from the body. The void may be blue or yellow, but the knowledge of that is itself void.
202. The knower who is the substratum for the two is also void; thus on consideration, the void is known through knowledge itself.
203. It is this that is proclaimed in the Sastras as the ideation store; it is destroyed every moment and also appears every moment.
204-205(a). This is like a flame and its permanence is also similar. Just as in a running
stream, there seems to be permanence, for all people the appearance in knowledge is also in the same manner.
205(b)-206. For the three schools of Buddhists, the objects of knowledge consist of five
Skandhas: form (Rupa), intelligence (Vijnana) and feeling (Vedana) and name (Samjna) and volitional dispositions (Samskaras) as the fifth.
207. Rupaskandha is to be known as the objects are the sense organs; the knowledge about the objects and the sense organs is Vijnanaskandha.
208-209. Pleasure, pain and delusion are called the Vedanaskandha. Perception is of
the form of knowledge associated with the name, attributes, actions and the universal. The Samjnaskandha is described by the Buddhists as having five-fold conception. The name is in different ways as cow, elephant, man etc.
210. Whiteness etc., are the attributes, 'I am standing' etc., are the actions and 'manliness' etc., are assumed as the universal by the Buddhists.
211-212(a). Qualified concepts are considered to be 'having horns', 'having four feet',
'having a tail' etc. Speed, circling and elasticity are said to form Samskara-skandha by those well-versed in the five Skandhas.
212(b)-213. Speed is like that of the arrow etc.; circling is assumed to be that of the
birch tree bark. Elasticity is spoken by the Buddhists as that of the branches etc. Thus the definitions of the five Skandhas are given.
214. These due to the actions of the living beings and by nature at every moment make integration and disintegration by the division of the body and the embodied.
215. Therefore for those who discriminate there is no self (Atman) apart from those. All this is also submerged in the continuity of ideas.
216. Therefore all knowledge is in the mind and has no external basis; the sun, the moon, the sky, the constellations, the earth,
217. the rivers, the oceans, the mountains – all are the products of knowledge. This universe remains inside (the mind) in the form of knowledge and it is ephemeral.
218. Then it appears as permanent and external. What is internal appears as external. Because what is internal has become external it does not appear as internal also.
219. On the power of the mistaken notion of permanence for the unsteady again and again, everything shines inside even after the objects are forgotten.
220. Thus it is established that the Universe remains well within the mind for the Sautrantika student as well as for the Vaibhasika student.
221-222. This is the one difference, everything else is common between them. For both
this entire universe, both internal and external are mental. The internal is known through perception and the external through inference and both are always ephemeral.
223-224. The bloating of the seed, sprouting, its becoming a tree, having leaves and
flowers and then having fruits – if this is steadiness, then the world will not have the six-fold transformation; the body will not have steadiness.
225-226. If time is taken to be permanent, its threefold distinction cannot exist; if
knowledge is permanent, the difference in cognition as blue, yellow, red and white will not appear separately. What is the use of explaining at length ? It is established that everything is impermanent.
227. On consideration, there is a difference in the case of the Vaibhasika student. The external cannot be inferred at any time.
228. The cognition of the external world as 'this' always comes as immediate (Aparoksa). Hence the external world can never be cognised through inference.
229-230. Thus understanding with the help of authoritative texts, doing one's own duty,
always serving the teacher and the Lord Buddha at all times and with his grace coming to understand the meaninglessness of all, by performing the virtuous habit of worshipping at the Chaityas and the silent muttering of Buddhist Mantras,
231. Since by establishing that the Vedic Mantras have no authority and obtaining the chain of knowledge, one gets final Release. There is no doubt in that.
232(a). Thus there will be final Release for the three (other than Madhyamika). This is
the essence of the theory.
232(b)-234. Thus considering the Buddha's view carefully again and again and knowing
it fully, reject it and listen to the views of Kanada. To him there are six objects of experience (Padarthas) – substance, quality, activity, generality, particularity and inherence. Substances are substrates of qualities and are classified into nine.
235. The nine substances are the (five) elements (earth, water, fire, air and ether), space, time, soul and mind. Among them the eighth substance is proclaimed to be the soul (or self).
236. Since it is the knower, I shall tell you its definition. It is different from the body etc., is eternal, all pervading and is not 'inert'.
237. It is to be understood by the experience of 'I' and exists in each body separately; it is subordinate to God and exists thus in many ways.
238. According to Kanada the other substances and the five other objects like quality are called objects of knowledge: The means of valid cognition (for him) are the same as for the Buddhists.
239. That which is here known is to be logically inferred. Quality has no activity and exists in the nine substances.
240-241. As regards quality, it exists in twenty-four forms: colour, taste, odour, touch,
number, then dimension, separateness, conjunction, then again disjunction, distance, proximity and so also,
242. Gravity, fluidity, viscidity, then intellect, pleasure, pain, desire, aversion, then again
243. effort, virtue and vice, impression (Samskara) and then sound. These are the twenty-four types (of quality).
244-246. Among the nine substances given above the qualities exist in different ways.
Colour, taste, odour, touch, number, then dimension, separateness, conjunction, then disjunction, distance, proximity, conditional fluidity and gravity and then impression are stated by the wise as the qualities of Earth (Prithivi).
247-251(a). These, minus odour, plus viscidity, are the qualities of water. Colour, touch,
number, dimension, then separateness, conjunction, disjunction, then distance and proximity, then impression and conditional fluidity are considered as the qualities of Fire. Touch, conjunction, disjunction, then distance, proximity, speed and impression – these are said to be the qualities of Air by those learned in all Shastras.
251(b)-253. Number, dimension, separateness and conjunction and disjunction and
sound – these are the qualities of Ether. Number, dimension, separateness, then conjunction and disjunction are considered to be the qualities of Time. The qualities of Space are also the same, when the real nature of space is considered.
254-255. Number, dimension, separateness, then conjunction and disjunction, then
intellect, pleasure and pain, desire, aversion, effort, virtue and vice and impression (Samskara) are proclaimed to be the qualities of the self by those who know the truth.
256-257. Number, dimension, separateness, then conjunction and disjunction, distance
and proximity, speed and impression are the qualities of the mind. The nine qualities beginning with intellect remain in the Self as specific qualities.
258. The quality of Ether is said to be sound; the quality of Air is touch, that of Fire is colour, that of Water is taste and that of Earth odour.
259. These qualities are undoubtedly specific to the elements. So also the qualities of space, time and mind are also specific.
260-261. Thus the distribution of qualities is described in detail. The five types of
activity are said by the wise to be throwing upwards, throwing downwards, motion, expansion and contraction. Generality is said to be of two kinds, higher and lower.
262-263. The higher generality is Existence; the other (lower) is substance-ness etc.
Individuality or specification is the differentiative cause existing separately in all the beings existing in this world. Inherence is here said to be the eternal relationship.
264-265. The atoms (Paramanus) are of four kinds Earthy, Watery, Fiery and Airy.
Through the stages of diads etc., the universe is produced and they are stated to be eternal. It is not possible, on consideration, that they are natural.
266. Therefore due to God's will the atoms produce the four elements, eternal and ephemeral, beginning with Earth.
267. On consideration the other five substances, Ether etc., are eternal only. Virtue, wealth, pleasure and liberation are called the (four) aims of existence (of people).
268. Of these wealth and pleasure are to be desired, if they are not in contradiction with virtue. Virtue consists of acts like Agnihotra (daily offerings in the sacred fire) and worship of God.
269. Liberation is the breaking away (of the soul) from the nine qualities through a knowledge of the true nature of the six categories. Tradition (Agama) is that by which the meaning conveyed by the scriptures is understood.
270. The Vedas are created by God and are Pramana because of that, i.e., since the Vedas form the words of a reliable Person, their validity is not.
271. Since the Vedas, God and knowledge about them can be acquired through inference, they are valid; their validity is not self-borne.
272. The cause-ness is to be inferred through the mark in the effect and not otherwise. The (material) cause for the production of this universe is the atoms.
273. The agent cause is God, just as the potter for the production of the pot. The (material) cause for the production of the pot is determined to be the clay;
274. And on consideration the potter is only the agent. This is the conclusion of Kanada (the Vaisesika), in brief.
275. After hearing this carefully, now listen to the views of the Naiyayika. To this school, the means of valid cognition are the four beginning with Perception.
276. The assumption of a knower, the assumption of his inertness, the assumption that he can be understood through the notion of 'I', and the
277. assumption that he is different from God and that he is different from the intellect, the senses and the body,
278. and the assumption of the plurality and eternality of the knower (Atman), the assumption of the objects of knowledge, some eternal and some non-eternal,
279. the assumption that the Vedas are the words of a reliable Person and that the atoms are the cause for the production of the universe,
280. and that God is the agent-cause for the production of the universe and the assumption of virtue (Dharma) etc., and of darkness – all these are as in the case of (the views of) Kanada.
281. Aksapada does not accept particularity; to him there are sixteen categories; means of valid knowledge, object of valid knowledge, doubt, purpose,
282. familiar instance, established tenet, members of syllogism, confutation, ascertainment, discussion, wrangling,
283. cavil, fallacy, quibble, futility and occasion for rebuke – these are the sixteen categories.
284-285. By the correct knowledge of these (categories), wrong notions will be
removed; that (in turn) removes defects like attachment (to the agreeable) etc. From that comes the annihilation of (the results of) virtuous and vicious actions and that leads to the (cycles of) existence continuously in various births.
286-287. Thus there will be final liberation gradually; this is the essence of the tenets
(of Aksapada). One school of Nyaya generally accepts these tenets; but regarding liberation there is a difference. It is not merely the annihilation of pain, but also the production of pleasure. And there are three kinds of means of valid knowledge.
288. Thus understanding the Tarka view, now listen to the views of the Samkhyas. Samkhya is of two types, atheistic and theistic.
289. For both of them Perception, Inference and Scriptures are the three means of valid cognition; the cogniser is considered to be the self (Purusha).
290. Who is eternally existent and never destroyed; he is always without object (Visaya). He will never be the agent, because he undergoes no change.
291. Transformation will take place for Prakriti which is omnipresent. Among the valid means of cognition, the scriptures are self-valid.
292. Since the scriptures are the statements of reliable persons, they are not eternal; but undoubtedly they are Pramanas both to the Mimamsakas and the Samkhyas.
293. Dharmas are injunctive (as for the performance) of Agnihotra etc., and prohibitive like restraint (of the senses) etc.
294. Restraint, observance, posture, regulation of breath, then abstraction of the senses, concentration,
295-296(a). meditation and trance are accepted as the eight accessories of Yoga. Of
these restraint (Yama) is stated to be non-violence (abstinence from injury), truthfulness, abstinence from theft, continence, pity, straightforwardness, abstinence from avariciousness etc.
296(b). The observances (Niyama) are penance (purificatory acts), cleanliness,
297. Posture (Asana) consists of Svastika, Gomukha, Padma etc. Regulation of breath is three-fold as Rechaka etc. (Puraka and Kumbhaka – exhaling, inhaling and keeping in the breath).
298. The abstraction of the senses (Pratyahara) is the restraining of the senses from external objects according to those who know it.
299. Concentration (Dharana) is said to be the concentration of the breath at the proper places. Meditation is the (concentrated) thought on Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva and other deities.
300. Cognitive trance (Samadhi) is the steadiness of the mind through meditation. These are the right accessories of Yoga as explained by the learned. 301. Yoga is said to be the restraining of the activities of the mind. The result of Yoga is also declared to be twofold:
302. those based on wisdom and those based on delusion. Their definitions are given below. Of these those based on wisdom are non-attachment, devotion and real knowledge.
303. At the first stage of Yogic attainment comes freedom from all diseases. One always desires to see oneself as identical with one's self.
304. At the second stage the Yogin will have poetic ability in all languages; at the third stage he gets a divine body which will not be affected by Vyalas or tigers.
305. At the fourth stage comes the absence of fear from hunger, thirst, sleep, cold and heat; undoubtedly he becomes the owner of a divine body, capable of hearing from far.
306. At the fifth stage is the attainment of the power of words and the capacity to (leave one's body and) enter another body. At the sixth stage one cannot be cut by weapons or broken by the thunderbolt.
307. At the seventh stage one gets omniscience. At the eighth stage he becomes similar to god and himself becomes the creator and destroyer.
308. Many Yogic attainments like these accrue to the Yogin. These are spoken of by the great masters as based on delusion (Maya).
309. According to the atheistic Samkhya, knowledge is said to be real; hence on consideration there is no knowledge in the form of doubt or error.
310. Therefore knowledge is of two types – grasping and recollecting. Error is only the lack of understanding of the difference (between the true and the apparent).
311. The Supreme Purusha remains separately in 84,00,000 beings with distinctions as gods, animals and human beings.
312. The plurality of selves (Purushas) is also established. By virtue one attains heaven and by sin one goes to hell.
313-314. When virtue and sin are equally balanced, one attains the human life. On
deep consideration there are only twenty-five principles (Tattvas) beginning with Purusha; the world is created by them. This is proclaimed by the authorities of the Samkhya thought as the objects of knowledge (Prameya).
315. What is well-known as the Mahat principle (the intellect) is fully based on Maya (the delusion). Three kinds of I-Principle (Ahamkara) are well produced from it. The three forms of the I-Principle are (a) Vaikrita when dominated by the Sattva-Guna, (b) Bhutadi when dominated by the Guna of Tamas and (c) Taijasa when dominated by the Guna of Rajas.
316. From the I-Principle, together with the delusion, the five Tanmatras are produced – sound, touch, colour, taste and odour in that order.
317. They are the objects of the senses of perception, they are also the attributes of the (five) elements. From sound arose ether; together with that, from touch arose air.
318. From those two and colour arose fire; from these together with taste arose water and from these and odour arose earth. So say the learned.
319-320. One, two, three and four Gunas are for ether etc., respectively. For these the
presiding deities are said to be Sadashiva, Isa, Rudra, Vishnu and Brahma respectively by those well-versed in Samkhya philosophy. From the Sattvika type of I-Principle come the internal organs of knowledge.
321. The mind, intellect, I-Principle and consciousness are the internal organs; doubt, determinative knowledge, pride and recollection – these are the objects.
322. The moon, Prajapati, Rudra and Kshetrajna (the self) are the deities. The ear, the skin, the eyes, the tongue and the nose are known as the five sensory organs (organs of cognition).
323. The space, air, the sun, Varuna and Nasatya are said to be the deities. From the Rajas dominated I-Principle arise the organs of action and the air.
324. The organs of action are voice, hands, feet and the organs of excretion and generation. Their functions are speech, grasping, motion, excretion and (sexual) enjoyment.
325. Their deities are Fire, Indra, Upendra, Mrityu and Prajapati. The breaths are Prana, Apana, Samana, Vyana and Udana.
326. (Also) Naga, Kurma, Krikala, Devadatta and Dhananjaya. The Prana and Apana are mutually obstructive.
327. Just as the Prana (vital breath) moves upwards, the Apana moves downwards. When the bodily fire kindles for digestion,
328. The Samana breath takes the juices released after digestion. The Vyana breath pervades throughout the body from head to foot.
329. The Udana breath moves along with the Prana and is the cause for the winking of the eyes. The Naga is responsible for producing belching; the Kurmaka makes the eyes (expelled by it) open.
330. Krikala is responsible for producing hunger, Devadatta produces yawning (exhaled in yawning); the Dhananjaya produces in the body various kinds of these (nourishments).
331-332. Since it is a worldly breath, it does not leave the body of the dead. The selves
and the categories pertaining to Prakriti – with these Purusha produces and sustains everything in order. Purusha who is unchangeable and eternal is different from the evaluates of Prakriti.
333. Purusha is the agent cause, while Prakriti is (material) cause. The relation between them is not like that of the potter in the production of the pot.
334. Liberation is the understanding of distinction between Purusha and Prakriti through the (discriminative) knowledge by means of (the practice of) Yoga. This in brief is the conclusion.
335-336. The theistic Samkhya has some difference. There is the Supreme Purusha
distinct from the selves; this is of three kinds as Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. Thus on consideration there are twenty-six categories here.
337. On the consideration of the real facts, there are experiences like error. Since knowledge is in the form of truth, intellectual knowledge has no defect.
338. The Supreme Purusha is changeless. Ishvara is the Purusha who is uncontaminated by the vehicles of affliction, action, fruition etc., (at any time, past, present or future).
339. Afflictions (Kleshas) are stated to be five: ignorance, egotism, desire, aversion and tenacity of mundane existence.
340. Action consists of meritorious and sinful acts, fruition (Vipaka) consists of the fruit of actions (pursuing those who commit them).
341. The (individual) self free from these, through constant devotion to the Supreme Purusha, through Yogic practices with discriminative knowledge and observing the form of the Supreme, attains the same form as that (of the Supreme Self) and this is called Liberation.
342. This is the difference, all other things are similar, in the case of theistic Samkhya. This is the essence of the conclusions (of the Samkhya system).
343. Considering well, for the clarification of the mind, this thesis of dualism on the part of Samkhya, together with the tenets of the Yoga system, now listen to the doctrines of the Mimamsaka.
344. Because of the (attempt at) demonstration of proving the non-validity of the Veda by the Bauddhas and others, Mimamsa sets forth to prove its validity.
345. It is composed of three sections on the basis of the qualifications of the eligible ones. It consists of twenty chapters; its division is explained (below).
346. The first section is made up of twelve chapters and the middle and the last sections four chapters each.
347. The author of the Sutras of the first section is Jaimini. Sabara is the commentator. Hence the commentary is named Sabara-Bhasya.
348. In the first chapter the validity of the Veda denied by the Bauddhas and others is established by the sage with the help of spiritual evidence and reasoning.
349. In the second chapter the different kinds of injunctions (Vidhi) are established with the help of scriptural passages and reasoning. The auxiliary and principal nature (Sesasesitva) of injunctions is determined in the third chapter.
350. The auxiliary and principal nature of the agent (Purusha) and sacrifice (Ijya) is established in the fourth. The order of sequence of the performance (of sacrifice) is settled in the fifth chapter.
351. And in the sixth is well discussed the qualifications of the performer. Thus the 'six-chaptered one' (Sadadhyayi) deals with the primary sacrifices (Prakriti).
352. Whatever is effected in the primary sacrifice is also to be effected in the secondary (Vikriti); this is discussed in general (Samanyatidesha) in the seventh chapter.
353. The eighth chapter deals with the same in particular (Visesatidesha). The modification (Uha) of acts is taught by the sage in the ninth chapter.
354. Exclusion (Badha) is explained in the tenth chapter as the suspension of acts. Centralisation (Tantra) is mentioned in the eleventh chapter and extended application (Prasanga) in the twelfth.
355. Thus the twelve-chaptered text (Dvadasadhyayi) is composed by Sabara Svamin for the accomplishment of only the Vedic acts.
356. That Bhasya was clearly explained by (Kumarila) Bhattapada and Guru (Prabhakara) separately, with difference of opinion; it is now summarized.
357. Regarding the knower (Pramatir), means of valid knowledge (Pramana) and objects of knowledge (Prameya), there is always dispute between them.
358. Perception etc., are indeed the five means of valid knowledge acknowledged by Prabhakara. These, along with non-apprehension (Abhava) are six means of valid knowledge accepted by the Bhattas.
359. According to Prabhakaraguru the cognition of absence does not exist. Moreover, darkness (Tamas) is not a separate substance. It is only the absence of light (Aloka).
360. All knowledge is always true. Error (Bhranti) and doubt (Samsaya) are not distinct means (of valid knowledge) because on reflection,
361. these cognitions are merely of the nature of non-discrimination. According to the wise, recognition (Pratyabhijna) is contained in perception.
362. The existence of pot etc., is known already. Since it (recognition) makes known the previously known existence, it is considered as mere apprehension.
363-364. Knowledge is two-fold: apprehension (Grahana) and remembrance (Smriti).
There is spontaneous self-luminosity of these two (kinds of) knowledge; the knower, as in the system of Vaisesika and others, is eternal, omnipresent and sentient.
365. The knower is the substratum of qualities like intellection (Buddhi), different from body etc., of the nature of agent (Kartir), enjoyer (Bhoktir) and wanders in the world due to Karma.
366. In the experience 'I know (the pot)', the knowledge manifests itself. So also the pot as the content of the cognition and the knower as the substratum of that knowledge. To be the knower is not otherwise since knowledge is dependent on it.
367. Because it is the object of the knowledge, it is taken as knowable (Prameya). Thus states Guru (Prabhakara), the upholder of the doctrine of the tripartite perception (Triputipratyaksavadin).
368. The object of the sacrifice etc., is named 'prompting force' (Niyoga). It is called Apurva because it is not ascertainable by other means of valid knowledge (other than Sabda).
369. It is termed 'something to be effected' (Karya) because it is to be effected through action. Likewise it is 'principal' (Pradhana) as it is the chief object of action.
370. Because it gives the result of heaven etc., to the person performing it, it is not to be considered as lacking freedom when thus considered.
371. To one who was defeated at the hands of one's enemy and went away abandoning the kingdom, his servant returned the kingdom after killing the enemy in the battlefield.
372. To the servant who had been forced to work by the king, wealth came and was given by him (to the king); this does not make the king inferior.
373. There may be difference in the form in what is different. The Dharma does not depend on something else. This doctrine of Prabhakara Guru is declared thus.
374. There is eternity for the Veda and its validity is self-evident. Also of the Upanishads and Mantras,
375. the validity of the eulogistic statements (Arthavada) does not exist at all times. Their validity as statements secondary to injunctions is accepted sometimes.
376-377. Validity of Itihasas and Puranas is certain. Eternity, absence of creatorship,
reality and multiplicity of the worlds of heaven, earth and hell are maintained. Because of the ascertainment of the existence of form etc., of deities,
378. Mantras refer only to the dative endings of words (signifying the deity) according to both Prabhakara and Kumarila Bhatta and to (the performance of) Agnihotra etc.
379. According to Bhatta, non-apprehension is a means of valid knowledge and through it non-existence (Abhava) becomes an object of apprehension. It is of five kinds:
380. absolute non-existence (Atyantabhava), prior non-existence (Pragabhava), non-existence on destruction (Pradhvamsabhava), mutual non-existence (Anyonyabhava)
381. and associative non-existence (Samsargabhava) are mentioned as objects (of non-apprehension). Among them hare's horn etc., are absolute non-existence.
382. Prior non-existence is that which exists prior to the creation of pot etc. Non-existence by destruction is that belonging to the period after destruction.
383. Mutual non-existence is that of pot etc., from clothness. Because of the non-apprehension of outside of the objects which are inside,
384. their non-existence is that of absence of association. These are proclaimed the objects of non-apprehension.
385. Darkness (Tamas) is a distinct substance and not mere absence of light, because of the scriptural statement 'in the beginning there was darkness covered with darkness'.
386. Knowledge is declared to be five-fold: true and erroneous knowledge, doubt, recognition and memory. The twofold classification is not approved of.
387. Mimamsa sets about to impart ascertained meaning to those people whose thoughts are filled with doubt and whose minds are perplexed.
388. There is reality for the knowledge which is of the form of doubt and error. The existence of these bits of knowledge is approved by all.
389. The knower is held to be of the nature of substance and consciousness. He is sentient as he is of a nature different from the object of knowledge.
390. And being the substratum of qualities it is assumed to be a substance. Thus the substantiality and sentience of the knowledge is established.
391. The substance which is the substratum of knowledge is not difference from knowledge; hence it is not different from knowledge and logical reasoning.
392. Light is the cause (of revelation) and the sun is the cause of that; hence the sun is not different from the light. It is similar.
393. It is maintained that only because of the identification of the insentient with the sentient, the cognisability of the self occurs in the notion 'I'.
394. There is cognisability of the prior knowledge by a subsequent knowledge. By this there is no infinite regress and there is no further desire of knowing.
395. 'This is a pot' is knowable by the reflective cognition 'I know the pot'. Similar is the case everywhere.
396-398. The purpose of injunctive statement is not Niyoga, but 'effecting' (Bhavana).
Know that it comprises of three factors: what is to be effected, by what it is to be effected and how it is to be effected. This is known as the opinion of the preceptor, Guru (Prabhakara) also.
399. Both the parties hold that liberation is abiding in one's true nature and that it is attained through rituals. Its nature is explained (below).
400-402. Since further demerit accrues to the one who repeatedly performs prohibited
acts (Prati-Siddha) and the acts aimed at the fulfillment of desires (Kamya), to the person who performs only daily (Nitya) and obligatory occasional (Naimittika) acts and exhausts the potency of former acts by experiencing them, liberation occurs to such a person of rituals. This abiding in one's true nature is termed Moksha.
403. Having heard and borne in mind the doctrine of the Karma Mimamsa, O virtuous one, hear now the doctrine of the Madhya Mimamsa.
404. (They are) devoted to Brahman possessing attributes (Saguna Brahman) and engage in the worship of deities. According to the Madhya Mimamsa, the knower is indeed the individual being.
405-406. The visible world is the knowable and the means of valid knowledge are eight-
fold. The Supreme Self is other than the individual being, is eternally liberated, self-luminous, of the nature of omnipresence and always possessing form like the sun. He, out of compassion, creates, protects and dissolves quickly.
407. Just as the world comes to light thus by the brilliance of the sun, so also the entire world shines continually by His light.
408. Liberation in the form of residence in the same world etc., (Salokya) occurs to the eternally bound being devoted to His worship only by his grace, not otherwise.
409. Among those who are named Pasupatas those who are Mahavratadharas, Kalamukhas, Jangamas and also the Saktas and the Vaishnavas,
410. there is difference in the form of the deity; the rest is similar. Attached to the sacred formula (Mantra) and mystic rites (Tantra) regardless of one's own true nature, they strive forever to disgrace one another with the aid of scriptural authority and reasoning.
411. This is the summary of the doctrines of these (sects) confused on account of their attachment to action (Karma).
412. (The followers of) the Uttara Mimamsa, on the other hand, is devoted to the worship of his own self. Samkaracharya, the great thinker is the author of its Bhasya.
413. The author of its Sutras is the great sage Veda Vyasa. It is maintained that the knower (Pramata) is the individual self, the knowable is indeed the visible world. Its conception of the means of knowledge is similar to that of Kumarila Bhatta.
414-415. The true principle of the form of existence, consciousness and bliss is indeed
the Absolute Brahman. There is no accessibility through the means of knowledge to Brahman who is of the nature of experience. The knowability of the Supreme Self is an immediate experience to those liberated even while living (Jivanmuktas).
416. 'I am of the form of existence, consciousness and bliss' – such is the knowability by immediate experience in their own lotus-heart by the wise.
417-418. The state of Brahman is certain to the being who has immediate experience.
Just as the pot illuminated by a lamp is not capable of illuminating the lamp, so also the means of valid knowledge (in the case of) the Supreme Self.
419. Without depending on the conscious self even the cognition of absence is nowhere manifested because of the nature of being insentient. How could indeed objects like the pot, the bell etc., becomes manifest ?
420. If there is indivisibility of this self of the form of consciousness, whence would appear the duality consisting of the world, beings and the Lord ?
421. If the non-reality of the duality which is experienced is definite, how is the reality (of the experience) 'You and I are different'.
422. Therefore there is clear cognition of the reality of duality. If it is (argued) thus, it is not reasonable when examined logically.
423. Just as the inner self exists in dream as if manifold, similarly even in the waking state the self exists as if manifold.
424. When it is determined that the manifoldness in dream is pervaded by the self, the difference manifests itself, as if it were real.
425. Just as the thickness, thinness or multipleness of the single fire shines forth always due to the difference in wood, so also the difference in the Supreme Self due to the differences in the bodies.
426. Therefore the existence of difference arises on account of the existence of (its) substratum.
427. Just as the existence of silver occurs to the being because of the existence of the shell, so also the existence of duality in the all-pervasive pure consciousness.
428. The shell, when seen only as a white brilliant object, does not appear to a person in its own form.
429. Similarly, even though the Supreme Self is known as pure consciousness, the eternality and perfection of the self does not at all become evident.
430. Just as the unchanging rope appears in the form of a snake, similarly in this case also, the world which consists of beings and the Supreme Lord.
431. Duality exists in the empirical state in two-foldness – as the seer and the seen, (but) does not indeed exist in profound meditation. Therefore it is clearly proved that duality is due to adventitious conditions.
432-434. Therein the visible world (Drisya) is indeed Maya; the seeing self is the
Supreme Lord. Maya is not real because it is different from the reality, also because of being the creator of the unreal world. It is not unreal because of being annulled by the true knowledge, because of the immediate cognition 'I do not at all know myself'. Nor is it both real and unreal due to its contradictions.
435-437. Because of the impossibility of the existence of contrary objects in one place,
the Maya of the Supreme Self is indescribable as real or as unreal. If it were different from the Supreme Self, it would become non-existent. Mahamaya is of the nature of object to be known, the Supreme Shiva is of the nature of intelligence. It is not capable of being known as such. Because of their contradictory nature, it is not proper to take them as identical.
438. If it is said to be of the nature of (both) difference and non-difference, that too is not proper. For a single entity cannot be different and non-different at the same time. This Maya is of the nature of effect (Karya), therefore it is not with parts.
439-443. Nor is it devoid of parts, for it exists in the form of the universe. If it is also not
of the nature both (with and without parts) when viewed from the said reasoning (contradictoriness). Hence it is established that Mahamaya is indeed indescribable. In this form
of pure consciousness, this movable and immovable universe appears constantly due to Maya like the imaginary town in the sky. Therefore the universe created by Maya in the pure consciousness in unreal like the universe in the dream, like the rope-snake and like the shell-silver. The unreality of an entity is its negation by the true knowledge.
444-445. Maya exists in the Self till liberation like Rahu in the sun, it is not the body, the
sense organ, the mind or intelligence or self. Because of the experience of 'mine' with regard to them, the nature of being self does not apply to them. Likewise, it is certain that the nature of being self does not belong to the vital air (Prana) also.
446. If it is argued that vital air is 'self' because it is inert in deep sleep; how it is not Atman is described (below).
447. (If it is the vital air) there should be the stopping of the function of the sense organs, hence it is not certain that it is the self. Even if it operates thus, the servants always work for the agent twofold, out of love and fear.
448. Since he does not cease to exist during sleep, it is definite that he is the lord.
449. The vital air protects the body because of its actions; the Self who is the cause enters the body and enjoys pleasure.
450-452. Therefore know that the vital air is not the doer. Since bondage is of the
nature of sorrow, its destruction is declared liberation (Moksha) by the pure Vedantins and by tradition. Discrimination between the eternal and the non-eternal is held as the first means of spiritual knowledge (Sadhana), the other being non-attachment to this world as well as to the hereafter, qualities of self-control and equanimity and also the desire for release.
453. The person endowed with these means is qualified (to study it). To this qualified who constantly practices 'hearing' (Sravana) etc.
454. On the attainment of the knowledge 'I am Brahman' the immediate destruction of ignorance is liberation; there is no other means.
455. Such is the essence of the doctrine of the noble Vedantins.
456. Thus having examined accurately the relative merits of all the doctrines and having understood what is to be avoided and what is to be adopted, move about at ease.