Sunday, February 28, 2010




गायत्री मंत्र की व्याख्या
भूर्भुव: स्व: तत्सवितुर्वरेन्यं भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि, धीयो यो : प्रचोदयात् ।।

Summary of the Gayatri Mantra

Gayatri Mantra (the mother of the vedas), the foremost mantra in hinduism and hindu beliefs, inspires wisdom. Its meaning is that "May the Almighty God illuminate our intellect to lead us along the righteous path". The mantra is also a prayer to the "giver of light and life" - the sun (savitur).

Oh God! Thou art the Giver of Life,
Remover of pain and sorrow,
The Bestower of happiness,
Oh! Creator of the Universe,
May we receive thy supreme sin-destroying light,
May Thou guide our intellect in the right direction.
Gayatri Mantra in Sanskrit
gayatri mantra in sanskrit Goddess Gayatri


Sanskrit Chant - Gayatri Mantra

Gayatry mantra

Gayatri Mantra V2

Gayatri, the five-faced Goddess, is said to have domain over the five senses or pranas, and protects these five life-forces of those who chant the Gayatri Mantra. In her role as the protector, Gayatri is referred to as Savitri.
Word for Word Meaning of the Gayatri Mantra

Aum = Brahma ;
bhoor = embodiment of vital spiritual energy(pran) ;
bhuwah = destroyer of sufferings ;
swaha = embodiment of happiness ;
tat = that ;
savitur = bright like sun ;
varenyam = best choicest ;
bhargo = destroyer of sins ;
devasya = divine ;
these first nine words describe the glory of God
dheemahi = may imbibe ; pertains to meditation
dhiyo = intellect ;
yo = who ;
naha = our ;
prachodayat = may inspire!
"dhiyo yo na prachodayat" is a prayer to God

Hence the Gayatri is unique in that it embodies the three concepts of stotra (singing the praise and glory of God), dhyaana (meditation) and praarthana (prayer).

The prayer form of the Gayatri be used to pray to Lord Shiva is called Rudra Gayatri. Similarly, one may sing Ganesha Gayatri for Lord Ganesha, Hanuman Gayatri for Lord Hanuman, and Saraswati Gayatri for Goddess Saraswati.

Origin, Benefits and Chanting of the Gayatri Mantra

The Vedas are widely considered to be the source of all true knowledge, the word "Veda" itself meaning "Knowledge". Gayatri Devi also gave to mankind the "Gayatri Mantra", also known as the "Guru Mantra" or the "Savitri Mantra". It is one of the oldest mantras, and generally thought of as being amongst the highest and most powerful mantras of all. This mantra is therefore often referred to as "the Mother of the Vedas". In the Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna had proclaimed to Arjuna - "Among all the mantras, I am the Gayatri".

Rishis selected the words of the Gayatri Mantra and arranged them so that they not only convey meaning but also create specific power of righteous wisdom through their utterance. The ideal times for chanting the mantra are three times a day - at dawn, mid-day, and at dusk. These times are known as the three sandhyas - morning, mid-day and evening. The maximum benefit of chanting the mantra is said to be obtained by chanting it 108 times. However, one may chant it for 3, 9, or 18 times when pressed for time. The syllables of the mantra are said to positively affect all the chakras or energy centres in the human body - hence, proper pronunciation and enunciation are very important.

Chanting of Gayatri Mantra removes all obstacles in our path to increased wisdom and spiritual growth and development. The teachings and powers incorporated in the Gayatri Mantra fulfill this purpose. Righteous wisdom starts emerging soon after Jap(recitation) of the Gayatri Mantra is performed. Sathya Sai Baba teaches that the Gayatri Mantra "will protect you from harm wherever you are, make your intellect shine, improve your power of speech, and dispel the darkness of ignorance (Dhiyoyonah prachodayaath)".

References to the Gayatri Mantra in Scriptures
भूर्भुव: स्व: तत्सवितुर्वरेन्यं भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि, धीयो यो : प्रचोदयात् ।।

Gayatri Mantra audio mp3 by Anuradha Paudwal(218K, 28sec)

The Upanisads (secret texts) of Hinduism contain several references to the Gayatri Mantra.
Chandogya Upanisad 3.12.1,2,5 (Qualities of Gayatri)

* 1. This entire creation is Gayatri. And the Gayatri is speech - for speech sings (gayati) and protects (trayati) this entire creation. Gayatri indeed is all this, whatever being exists. Speech indeed is Gayatri; for speech indeed sings and removes fear of all this that exists.
* 2. That which is this Gayatri, even that is this earth; for on this earth are all the beings established and they do not transcend it.
* 5. This well-known Gayatri is four-footed and sixfold.

Chandogya Upanisad 4.17.1-6 (Origin of Bhur Bhuvah Svah)

* 1. Prajapati (the progenitor of the worlds) brooded on the three worlds. From them he extracted their essences; fire from the earth, air from the sky and the sun from heaven.
* 2. He further brooded on these three deities. From them he extracted their essences: the Riks (Rg-veda) from fire, the Yajus-mantras (Yajur-veda) from air, and the Saman (Sama-veda) from the sun.
* 3. He brooded on the three Vedas. From them he extracted their existences; Bhuh from the Riks, Bhuvah from the Yajus-mantras and Svah from the Samans.
* 4-6. Therefore if the sacrifice is rendered defective on account of the Riks (or Yajus or Samans), then with the Mantra 'Bhuh Svaha' (or 'Bhuvah Svaha' or 'Svah Svaha'), the Brahman priest should offer an oblation in the fire. Thus verily, through the essence of the Riks (or Yajus or Samans), through the virility of the Riks (or Yajus or Samans), he makes good the injury of the sacrifice in respect of the Riks (or Yajus or Samans).

Brahadaranyaka Upanisad 5.14.4 (Gayatri as the Protector)
The Gayatri Mantra is based on truth. For truth is based on strength. Strength is breath, and is based on breath. So, Gayatri protects (tra) the wealth (gaya) (the breath!) of those who speak it with earnestness and devotion. When one recites Gayatri on behalf of someone, it protects that person's breath too!
Brahadaranyaka Upanisad 5.14.5 (Four 'foots' of the Gayatri)
This verse talks about the unbounded wealth contained within the four 'foots' of the Gayatri Mantra.

* The first foot (aum bhur bhuvah svaha) is said to be equivalent to the wealth contained in the three worlds put together.
* The second foot (tat savitur varenyam) is said to be equivalent to the wealth contained in the three main vedas.
* If one were to receive a gift extending as far as there are living beings, that would equal the third foot (bhargo devasaya dheemahi).
* The fourth foot (dheeyo yo nah prachodyaat) is based on the glory of the sun, whose power and wealth remains unequaled and unrivaled. Hence, there is no amount of wealth that can equal the fourth foot of the Gayatri!

Gayatri Mantra - Long Form and Praanayama

The complete form (or long form) of the Gayatri Mantra contains an invocation to the seven spheres, followed by the traditional 24-syllable mantra that is most commonly chanted (Details of each syllable can be found in the Gayatri by Words article). The final part of the mantra is an invocation to the Goddess of light to illuminate our path as we move towards higher consciousness.
gayatri mantra praanayama in sanskrit
ॐभू: ॐभुव: ॐस्व: ॐमह: ॐजन: ॐतप: ॐसत्यम, ॐतत्सवितुर्वरेन्यं, भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि, धीयो यो : प्रचोदयात् ।।

AUM bhUH, AUM bhuvaH, AUM svaH, AUM mahaH
AUM janaH, AUM tapaH, AUM satyam
AUM tatsaviturvarenyM bhargo devasya dhImahi
dhIyo yo nH prachodayAt.h.
AUM Apo jyotiH rasomRRitaM
brahma bhUR bhuvaH svar AUM..

AUM, the primordial sound, resides in all elements of the universe. It permeates the earth (-bhUH), water (-bhuvaH), fire (-svaH), air (-mahaH), ether (-janaH), intelligence (-tapaH) and consciousness (-satyam). We pay homage to Gayatri, the one who shines like the sun (tat savitur), the one who destroys all our sins through her everlasting and effulgent light. Dear Goddess Gayatri, please illuminate our path towards our higher consciousness and lead us to our true purpose in life. Please shine your light (-jyotiH) in our path so we may partake of the everlasting nectar (rasomRRitaM) of brahman while chanting the primordial sound, AUM!

Listen to the Gayatri Mantra Praanayama (mp3 extract, 30sec, 220K)
The Gayatri Mantra CD by Pandit Jasraaj and Rattan Mohan Sharma includes a 40+ minute rendition of repeated chants of the Gayatri Mantra. It is perfect to play in the background for your meditations.

Gayatri Mantra - Mantra or Prayer?

The Gayatri Mantra occupies a unique place in that it has both the power of mantra and of prarthana (prayer). It is important then in considering the Gayatri Mantra to distinguish the difference between these two deceptively similar words.

A mantra may be articulate or inarticulate, or a combination of them, as with AUM. It has an inherent power, known as "Mantra shakti", which has a positive influence not due to any philosophical meaning behind the mantra, but simply due to its utterance alone.

A prayer on the other hand does have a philosophical meaning behind it, and it is generally through this meaning that the prayer or prarthana has its power. Since this meaning can be easily understood, the method of prarthana is generally the form of worship used by most people.

The Gayatri, or Guru Mantra possesses both the power of mantra and the power of prarthana, and thus has both an intrinsic power (ie "mantra shakti"), through its mere utterance alone, and also an instrumental power (ie "prarthana shakti"), which is derived from the understanding of its meaning and philosophical significance. Hence, the repeated and correct chanting of the Gayatri Mantra, with proper understanding of its meaning, is believed to be of the greatest good to the individual.

We meditate on the glory of the Creator;
Who has created the Universe;
Who is worthy of Worship;
Who is the embodiment of Knowledge and Light;
Who is the remover of all Sin and Ignorance;
May He enlighten our Intellect.


The Gâyatrî Mantra is first recorded in the Rig Veda (iii, 62, 10) which was written in Sanskrit about 2500 to 3500 years ago, and by some reports, the mantra may have been chanted for many generations before that.

The word Gâyatrî (mw352) is a combination of Sanskrit words, although there is some disagreement in various texts about the exact derivation.

One suggestion is that the word Gâyatrî is made from these two words:
- gâyanath (mw352) what is sung, giving of praise
- trâyate ( mw457, root trai) preserves, protects, gives deliverance, grants liberation

Another viewpoint suggests that the roots are:
- gaya (mw348) vital energies
- trâyate ( mw457, root trai) preserves, protects, gives deliverance, grants liberation

The word Mantra (mw785) means instrument of thought, sacred text, or a prayer of praise.

So, the two words "Gâyatrî Mantra" might be translated as: a prayer of praise that awakens the vital energies and gives liberation.

And indeed, this is such a prayer.

The Use of Mantra:

Sri Aurobindo, in Hymns to the Mystic Fire, wrote:

"We have to invoke the gods by the inner sacrifice, and by the word call them unto us - that is the specific power of the Mantra, - to offer to them the gifts of the sacrifice and by that giving secure their gifts, so that by this process we may build the way of our ascent to the goal... We give what we are and what we have in order that the riches of the Divine Truth and Light may descend into our life."

In his book Sâdhanâ, Srî Swâmi Shivânanda wrote:

"Of all the mantras, the supreme and the most potent power of powers is the great, glorious Gâyatrî Mantra.

It is the support of every seeker after Truth who believes in its efficacy, power and glory, be he of any caste, creed, clime or sect. It is only one's faith and purity of heart that really count. Indeed, Gâyatrî is an impregnable spiritual armor, a veritable fortress, that guards and protects its votary, that transforms him into the divine, and blesses him with the brilliant light of the highest spiritual illumination.

... It is universally applicable, for it is nothing but an earnest prayer for Light, addressed to the Supreme Almighty Spirit.

... This single mantra, repeated sincerely and with clear conscience, brings the supreme good."

The Invocation:

Chanting of the Gâyatr Mantra is often prefaced with either a short invocation or a long invocation and is often followed with a closing.

The following are examples of two common invocations. In either of the invocations, we begin the recitation of the Gâyatrî Mantra with an invocation using the sacred symbol Om to acknowledge and pay homage to the One who is beyond name and form.

- Short Invocation:

This invocation is acknowledging and joyously celebrating that Om is bhûr, Om is bhuvas, Om is suvaha... Om is everything.

The terms bhûr, bhuvas, suvaha (mahâ vyâhritis) are invocations to honor the planes of our existence and to call to our aid the presiding deities of the three planes in which we live our ordinary life: the physical, astral and mental planes.

The three lokas (bhûr, bhuvas, suvaha) are the bîja (seed) mantrams of the devatâs called Agni, Vâyu and âditya who are being invoked to assist in our transformation. (See Chandogya Upanishad (IV, xvii, 1-3) and (II, xxiii, 3)).

Then Prajâpati reflected on the three lokas and from this reflection was born OM. As veins pervade all leaves, so Om pervades all sound. Verily all this is Om! Verily all this is Om!

Chandogya Upanishad (II, xxiii, 3)

The short preamble is simply these four words:


click here to hear Sai Baba chant the Gayatri with short invocation.

The Sanskrit character that is transliterated as bh is a very earthy sound that virtually explodes from the diaphragm. Listen carefully to the Sai Baba recording. To learn to make this sound, try saying "who" while sharply pulling in the abdominal muscles and forcing the diaphragm upward.... then add the "b" sound and do the same with bhûr (pronounced "bhoor").

(Please see the notes below regarding spelling and pronunciation of Sanskrit words)

- Long Invocation:

As with the shorter version, this invocation is a recognition that there are many worlds, all empowered by the nameless, formless, birthless, deathless which is symbolized by om.... om is everything.

These seven lines of the long invocation are the seven lokas, or planes, of existence, and are used not only to recognize and honor the planes of existence, but also to call the presiding deities of those planes to aid in our transformation and realization:

om bhûhû
om bhuvaha
om suvaha
om mahaha
om janaha
om tapaha
om satyaM

click here to hear Sreedevi Bringi chant the Gayatri with long invocation.

This magnificent chant by Sreedevi Bringi is done in the ancient, traditional Vedic manner which has been handed down from generation to generation for thousands of years.

The seven lokas, may be briefly described as:

bhûhû - earth, the physical world
bhuvaha - astral/desire/breath, the world of becoming
suvaha - mental, the world of thinking
mahaha - causal, silent mind, the world of emotion
janaha - world of creative generation
tapaha - world of intuition
satyaM - world of Absolute Truth

This recital of the lokas begins with the gross, physical world filled with separation and differences and then each, in sequence, becomes more refined, more transcendent, more unified, more all-encompassing.

The recitation of the lokas, done with intent and clarity, prepares one for the chanting of the Gâyatrî Mantra by harmonizing and attuning one with all the worlds.

Body of the Gâyatrî Mantra:

The body of the Gâyatrî Mantra is written as:

The transliterated text is:

om tat savitur vareNyaM

bhargo devasya dhîmahi

dhiyo yo nah prachodayât

Swâmi Shivânanda's translation of the Gâyatrî Mantra is:

We meditate on the glory of the Creator;
Who has created the Universe;
Who is worthy of Worship;
Who is the embodiment of Knowledge and Light;
Who is the remover of all Sin and Ignorance;
May He enlighten our Intellect.

A succinct and delightful translation by S. Krishnamurthy is:

We meditate upon the radiant Divine Light
of that adorable Sun of Spiritual Consciousness;
May it awaken our intuitional consciousness.

Here's a simple word-by-word translation:

Om - Om (Brahman, the One, the Godhead, Supreme Deity)

tat - that (referring to Savitri, Paramatma, God)

savitur - (mw1190) - Savitri, the Spiritual Sun (that from which all is born), the One Light, the all-pervading Consciousness

O nourishing Sun, solitary traveler, controller, source of life for all creatures, spread your light and subdue your dazzling splendor so that I may see your blessed Self. Even that very Self am I!

Isa Upanishad (16)

vareNyaM - most excellent, adorable, fit to be worshipped, venerable, worthy of being sought

bhargo - (mw748) - radiance, effulgence, splendor (the light that bestows understanding)

devasya - divine, of the deity

dhîmahi - we meditate upon... or may we meditate upon, reflect upon, be devoted to

dhiyo - prayer, noble thoughts, intuition, understanding of Reality (buddhis)

yo - he who, the one who

nah - our, of us

prachodayât - may he energize, direct, inspire, guide, unfold... or he who energizes, directs, inspires, guides, unfolds

(Please see the notes below regarding spelling and pronunciation of Sanskrit words, as well as the grammatical ambiguity of dhîmahi and prachodayât.))

Short Closing:

bhûr bhuvas suvar om

This simple closing phrase is magnificent, and is a powerful meditation all by itself, a joyous and humbling panoramic sweep from the initial earthy, lower chakra "bh" sound gradually becoming ever finer, transcending all the worlds, and culminating in the nameless, formless essence.

Long Closing:

Om âpo jyotih rasomritam brahma
bhûr bhuvas suvar om

This beautiful closing pays tribute to the myriad forms of the One. A simple translation is:

Om, the Water, the Light, the very Essence in which we exist, the Absolute, the physical world, the astral realm, the mental realm, all are Om.


As you may have noticed, the preamble begins with Om, the first line of the Gâyatrî Mantra begins with Om and the closing ends with Om.

Om is in everything and everything is in Om. Indeed, the mantric repetition of this one syllable, Om, is of immeasurable value. It is often said that Om is the greatest of all mantras.

Swâm Gambhrnanda suggests meditating in this manner:

I am Brahman, as signified by Om and as conditioned by mâyâ in which the sattva quality preponderates.

For clarification, here are quotes from various Upanishads describing the nature of Om:

I will give you the Word all the scriptures glorify and which all spiritual disciplines express, to attain which aspirants lead of a life of sense-restrain and selflessness. It is Om. This symbol of Brahman is the highest. Realizing it, one finds complete fulfillment of all one's longings. It is of the greatest support to all seekers.

Katha Unpanishad (I, ii, 15-17)

Take the great bow of the sacred scriptures, place on it the arrow of devotion; then draw the bowstring of meditation, and aim at the target, the Lord of Love. Om is the bow, the soul is the arrow, and Brahman is called its target. Now draw the bowstring of meditation and hitting the target, be One with It.

Mundaka Upanishad (II, ii, 3-4)

Fire is not seen until one firestick rubs across another, though the fire is still there, hidden. So does Brahman remain hidden until being revealed by the mantram Om. Let your body be the lower firestick and the mantram Om be the upper. Rub them against each other in meditation and realize Brahman.

Shvetashvatara Upanishad (1, 13-14)

Daily spiritual practice:

The beautiful rhythmic patterns, soothing ancient sounds and powerful intent make the Gâyatrî Mantra a magnificent part of daily spiritual practice.

The Gâyatrî Mantra combines the effects of mantric sound with the effects of a deep and profound prayer, resulting in a combination which is exceedingly potent.

As with all spiritual practices, this is a vehicle for intent. The stronger and greater the intent, the stronger and greater the results.

Spiritual progress does not succeed merely by means of intellectual reasoning or theoretical arguments, but rather by direct experience. If you would like a deeper understanding of the Gâyatrî Mantra, it is well and good that you should begin with an intellectual understanding of the words and the intent, but that is only a preliminary step leading to your own direct experience of That Which is beyond words.

Humble Submission and Selfless Unity:

Many of the greatest prayers, such as the Gâyatrî Mantra from the ancient rishis of India, the Fâtiha which was received by the prophet Muhammad, and the Lord's Prayer which was given to us by Jesus, all share some magnificent similarities, illustrating the highest and noblest principles of prayer.

In each of these great prayers, the opening lines are a humble recognition that there is a Greater Power, and that all that we receive comes from the will of that Greater Power. Such prayer is an act of humble submission to That Which is beyond our understanding.

And the final lines of each of these great prayers, in humble submission to a Greater Power, acknowledge the gifts of understanding and awakening which are continually bestowed upon all of mankind, even though so few are even aware of the gifts. This humble recognition of the gifts that are constantly showered upon us is an essential element of the highest spiritual practices that we have been given, leading us toward the understand that we can and should rise above our differences and divisions, emerging from our delusion of separation and becoming aware of the Light of Unity which already shines upon all of creation.

Create your own unique rendering:

Armed with the definitions of the Sanskrit words and your own unique insight into what the mantra means for you (which may change over time), it may be very useful to write your own personal rendering of the meaning of the mantra.

For example, here is my current rendering:

We meditate upon the Divine Radiance,
that One Light which deserves our worship,
the One whose noble thought energizes and directs our awakening.

Audio recordings of the Gâyatrî Mantra:

Using the Short Invocation:

- Sai Baba chanting the Gayatri Mantra with short invocation (from Embodiment of Love )

- Gayatri Mantra chanted with short invocation

- Gayatri Mantra sung by Anuradha Paudwal

Using the Long Invocation:

- Sreedevi Bringi chanting the Gayatri Mantra with long invocation

- Gayatri Mantra sung by wahiduddin

Other Gâyatrî Mantras:

There are many versions of the Gâyatrî Mantra in which deities other than Savitur are invoked.

For example, there is a Vishnu Gâyatrî, a Shiva Gyatrî, a Durgâ Gâyatrî, an Agni Gâyatrî, and so on. In general, these mantras are very similar to, and perhaps derived from, the form of the original Gâyatrî of the Rig Veda.


1) The transliterations of the Gâyatrî Mantra given on this page include the Sanskrit rules of grammar known as sandhi.

2) The notation (mw352) denotes, for example, that the Sanskrit word gâyatrî may found on page 352 of the Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary.

3) There is a interesting and powerful grammatical ambiguity in the terms dhîmahi and prachodayât, wherein the phrase may either be expressed as a prayerful desire or as a statement of fact.

The term dhîmahi can indicate a desire in the form of "may we meditate upon" or it can also indicate a statement of fact such as "we meditate upon".

Similarly, the term prachodayât indicate a desire in the form of "may he awaken our intuition" or it may also indicate a statement of fact such as "he awakens our intuition".

This ambiguity allows for a variety of interpretations according to one's current beliefs and spiritual understanding. For some, the prayerful beseeching using "may.." is very important. For others, the recognition of these conditions as already having occurred is a cause for rejoicing and joyful praise.

4) Please note that transliterations are not phonetic... there are specific rules for pronouncing each transliterated character.

There are many more characters in the Sanskrit alphabet than there are in our English alphabet, therefore some English letters are used in more than one way, such as n and N representing two different sounds, or a and â representing two different sounds.

Here are phonetic guidelines for some common vowels used in this transliteration:

long vowels: â is like a in father, î is like ee in reel, û is like u in rude
short vowels: a as like u in but, i is like i in if, u is like u in full, o as in oat.

5) You may be wondering why the first loka is written as bhûH, but is written as bhûr in the short preamble, and is written as bhûhû in the long preamble.

Simply, this is how the rules of Sanskrit grammar (sandhi) operate on the character called visarga which is the final character of each of the first six lokas.

Written all alone, the first six lokas are written as: bhûH, bhuvaH, suvaH, mahaH, janaH and tapaH, where the letter H denotes the Sanskrit character called visarga.

When the character visarga ends a word, the sound of the visarga depends upon both preceding sound as well as the following sound. This can make the language very confusing and sometimes ambiguous, but it also brings a sense of life into the language... just as our lives change depending upon who we are around, so the visarga changes the sound of the word depending upon what sounds are around it... a delightful sort of alphabet karma.

Written all alone, with no following word, the first loka is properly written as bhûH.

However, when the visarga is followed by "bh" then the visarga creates a sound like an "r". Hence, bhûH followed by bhuvaH is pronounced as bhûr.

And when the visarga is followed by the syllable Om, then the visarga is pronounced like an "h" followed by the vowel that was immediately before the visarga. So, bhûH followed by Om is pronounced as bhûhû.



Gâyatrî, I.K Taimni, Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1974, ISBN 81-7059-084-1

Gâyatrî, Sadguru Sant Keshavadas, Motilal Bandarsidass, Delhi, 1978, ISBN 81-208-0697-2

A few on-line resources for the short form of the Gayatri Mantra:

The short excerpt of Sai Baba chanting with background and chorus is from the CD called Embodiment of Love, by Gianluca & Gabriele Ducros

Gayatri Mantra
(Gayatri Audio CD)

Gayatri Mantra (GUY-ah-tree) is one of the most known and beneficial of the ancient Sanskrit mantras. Gayatri is a mantra of physical, emotional, and mental healing, purifying the subtle karmas, protection from the onslaught of obstacles, and of spiritual awakening or Self-realization.

The handwritten mantra below and the audio sound
sample are by my dear friend, Swami Nardanand.

Aum Bhur Bhuva Svah
Tat Savitur Varenyam
Bhargo Devasya Dhimahi
Dhiyo Yo Naha Prachodayat

On the absolute reality and its planes,
On that finest spiritual light,
We meditate, as remover of obstacles
That it may inspire and enlighten us.

Click here to listen to 108 repetitions by Swami Nardanand.

Audio Podcast:
The Secret of Shiva and Shakti in the Three Worlds


AUM/OM: Absolute reality. That which encompasses the three states of waking, dreaming, deep sleep, represented by AUM, the three levels of gross, subtle, causal, the three levels of conscious, unconscious, subconscious, and the three universal processes of coming, being, and going. Absolute silence beyond the three levels is the silence after AUM.

Bhur: Physical realm or plane; earth.

Bhuva: The subtle or astral plane.

Svah: The higher, celestial plane.


Tat: That, the essential essence.

Savitur: Bright, luminous, sun-like, inner power of spiritual light, which brings one to Self-realization.

Varenyam: Finest, best, choicest, fit to be sought.


Bhargo: Destroyer of obstacles. Effulgence

Devasya: Divine, resplendent, shining

Dhimahi: We meditate.


Dhiyo: Our being of intelligence, intellect, understanding, mind/heart

Yo: Who, which

Naha: Our

Prachodayat: May enlighten, direct, inspire, guide, impel.


40 day practice

The period of 40 days has been widely recognized as an auspicious period both in the East and the West since ancient times. A traditional way to do an extended mantra practice is to choose a number of repetitions per day, and to do that for 40 days. The mind likes to have a beginning and end to a practice, a sense of completion, such as comes with a 40 day (or longer) practice.


Fixed time per practice session: Mind finds comfort in knowing that it will do the practice of one round of 108 repetitions (or some other number of rounds), and that each round will take a predictable amount of time (18 minutes per round of 108 repetitions).


Same number of rounds: Mind also likes the predictability of doing a certain number of rounds done per day. Mind may resist at times, but once it gets started in the practice, mind likes the habit.


Specific number of days: Mind also likes the plan of knowing how many days or months a practice will take to complete. This can be very beneficial in stabilizing a noisy mind, which is a common complaint.

Listening to this online Gayatri mantra recording of 108 repetitions (18 minutes) is equivalent to one round of a mala. A mala is a set of counting beads with 108 beads. Only 100 are counted, with the other 8 considered an offering to the divine, however you personally hold that. You might choose to do 1, 2, 3, or 4 rounds of 108 mantras per day, counting with a set of mala beads.

Or, you can use the Gayatri Mantra CD instead of the mala beads, as the CD has 4 tracks of 108 repetitions each. You might choose to do 1, 2, 3, or 4 tracks of 108 mantras per day. You might also want to alternate between doing some with the recording and some without, counting instead with a set of mala beads.

It has been said that there is freedom in discipline; choosing to do a regular practice frees the mind from wondering what practice will be done that day. It is also important not to do the mantra practice with rote repetition, but rather, with feeling and awareness.

By running your own experiment for 40 days, you can decide for yourself whether or not the practice is beneficial.

Extended practice

A noticeable level of mantra siddhi (power of the mantra) is said to come with 125,000 repetitions of a mantra (Such an extended practice is called a purascharna). This is equivalent to 1250 rounds of a mala.

Listening to this online Gayatri mantra recording of 108 repetitions (18 minutes) is equivalent to one round of a mala (Or, you can also use the Gayatri Mantra CD). To complete the equivalent of 1250 rounds of a mala, or a total of 125,000 repetitions of Gayatri mantra, will take this amount of time:
per day Time
per day Total
days Appx.
1 18 min 1250 42
2 36 min 625 21
3 54 min 417 14
4 1 hr, 12 min 313 10 1/2
5 1 hr, 30 min 250 8 1/2
6 1 hr, 48 min 209 7
7 2 hr, 6 min 179 6

Such an extended practice with Gayatri mantra can have a tremendous effect in stabilizing the mind in preparation for advancing in meditation. Such a practice simply must be done personally to understand the benefits. It does take quite a commitment to do this practice every day for such a long period, but it is well worth the effort.

In choosing the level of practice per day, it is important to have stability from one day to the next, and to not skip any days. It is best to choose the level that works for you consistently, rather than changing the number from day to day. For example, if two rounds per day is a good number (34 minutes), then it's better to stay with that amount each and every day, not to do none on one day, but four on the next day.


History of Hindu Temples

History of Hindu Temples

History of Hindu Temples
The Temple's Journey Through the Ages

By Subhamoy Das,

Historians say Hindu Temples did not exist during the Vedic period (1500 - 500 BC). The remains of the earliest temple structure were discovered in Surkh Kotal, a place in Afghanistan by a French archeologist in 1951. It was not dedicated to a god but to the imperial cult of King Kanishka (127 - 151 AD). The ritual of idol worship which became popular at the end of the Vedic age may have given rise to the concept of temples as a place of worship.

The Earliest Hindu Temples
The earliest temple structures were not made of stones or bricks, which came much later. In ancient times, public or community temples were possibly made of clay with thatched roofs made of straw or leaves. Cave-temples were prevalent in remote places and mountainous terrains.

According to historian, Nirad C Chaudhuri, the earliest structures that indicate idol worship date back to the 4th or 5th century AD. There was a seminal development in temple architecture between the 6th and the 16th century. This growth phase of Hindu temples charts its rise and fall alongside the fate of the various dynasties that reigned India during the period majorly contributing and influencing the building of temples, especially in South India. Hindus consider the building of temples an extremely pious act, bringing great religious merit. Hence kings and wealthy men were eager to sponsor the construction of temples, notes Swami Harshananda, and the various steps of building the shrines were performed as religious rites.

Temples of South India (6th - 18th Century AD)
The Pallavas (600 - 900 AD) sponsored the building of the rock-cut chariot-shaped temples of Mahabalipuram, including the famous shore temple, the Kailashnath and Vaikuntha Perumal temples in Kanchipuram in southern India. The Pallavas style further flourished - with the structures growing in stature and sculptures becoming more ornate and intricate - during the rule of the dynasties that followed, particularly the Cholas (900 - 1200 AD), the Pandyas temples (1216 - 1345 AD), the Vijayanagar kings (1350 - 1565 AD) and the Nayaks (1600 - 1750 AD).

The Chalukyas (543 - 753 AD) and the Rastrakutas (753 - 982 AD) also made major contributions to the development of temple architecture in Southern India. The Cave Temples of Badami, the Virupaksha temple at Pattadakal, the Durga Temple at Aihole and the Kailasanatha temple at Ellora are standing examples of the grandeur of this era. Other important architectural marvels of this period are the sculptures of Elephanta Caves and the Kashivishvanatha temple.

During the Chola period the South Indian style of building temples reached its pinnacle, as exhibited by the imposing structures of the Tanjore temples. The Pandyas followed in the footsteps the Cholas and further improved on their Dravidian style as evident in the elaborate temple complexes of Madurai and Srirangam. After the Pandyas, the Vijayanagar kings continued the Dravidian tradition, as evident in the marvelous temples of Hampi. The Nayaks of Madurai, who followed the Vijayanagar kings, hugely contributed to architectural style of their temples, bringing in elaborate hundred or thousand-pillared corridors, and tall and ornate 'gopurams' or monumental structures that formed the gateway to the temples as evident in the temples of Madurai and Rameswaram.

Temples of East, West and Central India (8th - 13th Century AD)
In Eastern India, particularly in Orissa between 750-1250 AD and in Central India between 950-1050 AD many gorgeous temples were built. The temples of Lingaraja in Bhubaneswar, the Jagannath temple in Puri and the Surya temple in Konarak bear the stamp of Orissa's proud ancient heritage. The Khajuraho temples, known for its erotic sculptures, the temples of Modhera and Mt. Abu have their own style belonging to Central India. The terracotta architectural style of Bengal also lent itself to its temples, also notable for its gabled roof and eight-sided pyramid structure called the 'aath-chala'.

Temples of Southeast Asia (7th - 14th century AD)
Southeast Asian countries, many of which were ruled by Indian monarchs saw the construction of many marvelous temples in the region between 7th and 14th century AD that are popular tourist attractions till his day, the most famous amongst them being the Angkor Vat temples built by King Surya Varman II in the 12th century. Some of the major Hindu temples in Southeast Asia that are still extant include the Chen La temples of Cambodia (7th - 8th century), the Shiva temples at Dieng and Gdong Songo in Java (8th - 9th century), the Pranbanan temples of Java (9th - 10th century), the Banteay Srei temple at Angkor (10th century), the Gunung Kawi temples of Tampaksiring in Bali (11th century), and Panataran (Java) (14th century), and the Mother Temple of Besakih in Bali (14th century).

Hindu Temples of Today
Today, Hindu temples across the globe form the cynosure of India's cultural tradition and spiritual succor. There are Hindu temples in all almost countries of the world, and contemporary India is bristled with beautiful temples, which hugely contribute to her cultural heritage. In 2005, arguably the largest temple complex was inaugurated in New Delhi on the banks of river Yamuna. The mammoth effort of 11,000 artisans and volunteers made the majestic grandeur of Akshardham temple a reality, an astounding feat which the proposed world's tallest Hindu temple of Mayapur in West Bengal is aiming accomplish.


Wednesday, February 24, 2010

அழுகணிச் சித்தர் பாடல்கள் 1

அழுகணிச் சித்தர் பாடல்கள் 1

இவர் பாடல்கள் அனைத்தும் ஒப்பாரி போல அமைந்து இருப்பதால் அவருக்கு அழுகணி சித்தர் என பெயர் வந்திருக்கலாம் என கூறுவர்.

இவர் பாடல்களில் இருக்கும் அழகையும், அணியையும் காரணமாக் வைத்து அவருக்கு அழகணி சித்தர் என பெயர் வந்து அதுவே மருவி அழகுனி சித்தர் என மாரியதாக் கூறுவார். இவர் பாடல்கலில் அழுகன்னி, தோழுகன்னி மூலிகைகளை மிகுதியாக கையாண்டுள்ளார்.

இவர் பெயரில் 32 கலிதாழிசைகள் உள்ளன. வாசியோகம் ,காய சித்தி முறை பற்றி இவர் பாடல்கள் விளக்குகின்றன. இவர் அழுகணி சித்தர் பாடல், ஞான சூத்திரம் , அழுகன் யோகம், அழுகன் வைத்தியம் போன்ற நூல்களை படைத்துள்ளார்.

இவர் நாகப்படினத்தில் உள்ள சிவ பெருமான் கோயில் வளாகத்தில் சமாதி அடைந்துள்ளார்.


மூலப் பதியடியோ மூவிரண்டு வீடதிலே
கோலப் பதியடியோ குதர்க்கத் தெருநடுவே
பாலப் பதிதனிலே தணலாய் வளர்த்தகம்பம்
மேலப் பதிதனிலே என் கண்ணம்மா!
விளையாட்டைப் பாரேனோ! 1

எண்சாண் உடம்படியோ ஏழிரண்டு வாயிலடி
பஞ்சாயக் காரர்ஐவர் பட்டணமுந் தானிரண்டு
அஞ்சாமற் பேசுகின்றாய் ஆக்கினைக்குத் தான்பயந்து
நெஞ்சார நில்லாமல் என் கண்ணம்மா!
நிலைகடந்து வாடுறண்டி! 2

முத்து முகப்படியோ முச்சந்தி வீதியிலே
பத்தாம் இதழ்பரப்பிப் பஞ்சணையின் மேலிருத்தி
அத்தை யடக்கிநிலை ஆருமில்லா வேளையிலே
குத்து விளக்கேற்றி என் கண்ணம்மா!
கோலமிட்டுப் பாரேனோ! 3

சம்பா அரிசியடி சாதம் சமைத்திருக்க!
உண்பாய் நீயென்று சொல்லி உழக்குழக்கு நெய்வார்த்து
முத்துப் போலன்னமிட்டு முப்பழமும் சர்க்கரையும்
தித்திக்குந் தேனாமிர்தம் என் கண்ணம்மா!
தின்றுகளைப் பாரேனோ! 4

பைம்பொற் சிலம்பணிந்து பாடகக்கால் மேல்தூக்கிச்
செம்பொற் கலையுடுத்திச் சேல்விழிக்கு மையெழுதி
அம்பொற் பணிபூண் டறுகோண வீதியிலே
கம்பத்தின் மேலிருந்தே என் கண்ணம்மா!
கண்குளிரப் பாரேனோ! 5

எட்டாப் புரவியடி யீராறு காலடியோ
விட்டாலும் பாரமடி வீதியிலே தான்மறித்துக்
கட்டக் கயிறெடுத்துக் கால்நாலும் சேர்த்திறுக்கி
அட்டாள தேசமெல்லாம் என் கண்ணம்மா!
ஆண்டிருந்தா லாகாதோ! 6

கொல்லன் உலைபோலக் கொதிக்குதடி யென்வயிறு
நில்லென்று சொன்னால் நிலைநிறுத்தக் கூடுதில்லை
நில்லென்று சொல்லியல்லோ நிலைநிறுத்த வல்லார்க்குக்
கொல்லென்று வந்தநமன் என் கண்ணம்மா!
குடியோடிப் போகானோ! 7

ஊற்றைச் சடலமடி உப்பிருந்த பாண்டமடி
மாற்றிப் பிறக்க மருந்தெனக்குக் கிட்டுதில்லை
மாற்றிப் பிறக்க மருந்தெனக்கு கிட்டுமென்றால்
ஊற்றைச் சடலம் விட்டேஎன் கண்ணம்மா!
உன்பாதஞ் சேரேனோ! 8

வாழைப் பழந்தின்றால் வாய்நோகு மென்றுசொல்லித்
தாழைப் பழத்தின்று சாவெனக்கு வந்ததடி
தாழைப் பழத்தைவிட்டுச் சாகாமற் சாகவல்லோ
வாழைப் பழந்தின்றால் என் கண்ணம்மா!
வாழ்வெனக்கு வாராதோ! 9

பையூரி லேயிருந்து பாழூரிலே பிறந்து
மெய்யூரில் போவதற்கு வேதாந்த வீடறியேன்,
மெய்யூரிற் போவதற்கு வேதாந்த வீடறிந்தால்
பையூரும் மெய்யூரும் என் கண்ணம்மா!
பாழாய் முடியாவோ! 10

கடைசி பாடலுக்கான பொருள்: பையூர் - கருப்பை, மெய்யூர் - மோட்சம் (அழிவில்லாத ஞானம்)பாழூர் - இந்த உலகம்



மாமன் மகளடியோ மச்சினியோ நானறியேன்
காமன் கணையெனக்குக் கனலாக வேகுதடி
மாமன் மகளாகி மச்சினியும் நீயானால்
காமன் கணைகளெல்லாம் என் கண்ணம்மா!
கண்விழிக்க வேகாவோ! 11

அந்தரத்தை வில்லாக்கி ஐந்தெழுத்தை யம்பாக்கி
மந்திரத்தே ரேறியல்லோ மான்வேட்டை யாடுதற்குச்
சந்திரரும் சூரியரும் தாம்போந்த காவனத்தே
வந்துவிளை யாடியல்லோ என் கண்ணம்மா!
மனமகிழ்ந்து பார்ப்பதென்றோ! 12

காட்டானை மேலேறிக் கடைத்தெருவே போகையிலே
நாட்டார் நமைமறித்து நகைபுரியப் பார்ப்பதென்றோ
நாட்டார் நமைமறித்து நகைபுரியப் பார்த்தாலும்
காட்டானை மேலேறி என் கண்ணம்மா!
கண்குளிரக் காண்பேனோ! 13

உச்சிக்குக் கீழடியோ ஊசிமுனை வாசலுக்குள்
மச்சுக்கு மேலேறி வானுதிரம் தானேடுத்துக்
கச்சை வடம்புரியக் காயலூர்ப் பாதையிலே
வச்சு மறந்தல்லோ என் கண்ணம்மா!
வகைமோச மானேண்டி! 14

மூக்கால் அரும்பெடுத்து மூவிரண்டாய்த் தான்தூக்கி
நாக்கால் வளைபரப்பி நாற்சதுர வீடுகட்டி
நாக்கால் வலைபரப்பி நாற்சதுர வீட்டினுள்ளே
மூக்காலைக் காணாமல் என் கண்ணம்மா
முழுதும் தவிக்கிறண்டி! 15

காமமலர் தூவக் கருத்தெனக்கு வந்ததடி
பாமவலி தொலைக்கப் பாசவலி கிட்டுதில்லை
பாமவலி தொலைக்கப் பாசவலி நிற்குமென்றால்
காமமலர் மூன்றும் என் கண்ணம்மா!
கண்ணெதிரே நில்லாவோ! 16

தங்காயம் தோன்றாமல் சாண்கலக் கொல்லைகட்டி
வெங்காய நாற்றுவிட்டு வெகுநாளாய்க் காத்திருந்தேன்
வெங்காயந் தின்னாமல் மேற்றொல்லைத் தின்றலவோ
தங்காயந் தோணாமல் என் கண்ணம்மா!
சாகிறண்டி சாகாமல்! 17

பற்றற்ற நீரதிலே பாசி படர்ந்ததுபோல்
உற்றுற்றுப் பார்த்தாலும் உன்மயக்கம் தீரவில்லை
உற்றுற்றுப் பார்த்தாலும் உன்மயக்கந் தீர்ந்தக்கால்
பற்றற்ற நீராகும் என் கண்ணம்மா!
பாசியது வேறாமோ! 18

கற்றாரும் மற்றாருந் தொண்ணூற்றோ டாறதிலே
உற்றாரும் பெற்றாரும் ஒன்றென்றே யானிருந்தேன்
உற்றாரும் பெற்றாரும் ஊரைவிட்டுப் போகையிலே
சுற்றாரு மில்லாமல் என் கண்ணம்மா!
துணையிழந்து நின்றதென்ன ? 19

கண்ணுக்கு மூக்கடியோ காதோர மத்திமத்தில்
உண்ணாக்கு மேலேறி உன்புதுமை மெத்தவுண்டு
உண்ணாக்கு மேலேறி உன்புதுமை கண்டவர்க்கும்
கண்ணுக்கு மூக்கடியோ என் கண்ணம்மா!
காரணங்கள் மெத்தவுண்டே! 20


சாயச் சரக்கெடுத்தே சாதிலிங்கம் தான்சேர்த்து
மாயப் பொடிகலந்து வாலுழுவை நெய்யூற்றிப்
பொட்டென்று பொட்டுமிட்டாள் புருவத்திடை நடுவே
இட்ட மருந்தாலே என் கண்ணம்மா!
இவ்வேட மானேண்டி! 21

பாதாள மூலியடி பாடாணம் தான்சேர்த்து
வேதாளங் கூட்டியல்லோ வெண்டாரை நெய்யூற்றிச்
செந்தூர மையடியோ செகமெல்லாம் தான்மிரட்டித்
தந்த மருந்தாலே என் கண்ணம்மா!
தணலாக வேகுறண்டி! 22

கள்ளர் பயமெனக்குக் கால்தூக்க வொட்டாமல்
பிள்ளை யழுதுநின்றால பெற்றவட்குப் பாரமடி
பிள்ளை யழுவாமல் பெற்றமனம் நோகாமல்
கள்ளர் பயமெனக்கே என் கண்ணம்மா!
கடுகளவு காணாதோ! 23

பட்டணத்தை யாளுகின்ற பஞ்சவர்கள் ராசாக்கள்
விட்டுப் பிரியாமல் வீரியங்கள் தாம்பேசி
விட்டுப் பிரிந்தவரே வேறு படுங்காலம்
பட்டணமும் தான்பறிபோய் என் கண்ணம்மா
படைமன்னர் மாண்டதென்ன ? 24

ஆகாப் புலையனடி அஞ்ஞானந் தான்பேசிச்
சாகாத் தலையறியேன் தன்னறிவு தானறியேன்
வேகாத காலறியேன் விதிமோச மானேனடி
நோகாமல் நொந்தல்லோ என் கண்ணம்மா!
நொடியில்மெழு கானேனடி! 25

தாயைச் சதமென்றே தந்தையரை ஒப்பென்றே
மாயக் கலவிவந்து மதிமயக்க மானேனடி
மாயக் கலவிவிட்டு மதிமயக்கம் தீர்ந்தக்கால்
தாயுஞ் சதமாமோ என் கண்னம்மா
தந்தையரு மொப்பாமோ ? 26

அஞ்சாத கள்ளனடி ஆருமற்ற பாவியடி
நெஞ்சாரப் போய்சொல்லும் நேயமில்லா நிட்டூரன்
கஞ்சா வெறியனடி கைசேத மாகுமுன்னே
அஞ்சாதே யென்றுசொல்லி என் கண்ணம்மா
ஆண்டிருந்தா லாகாதோ! 27

உன்னை மறந்தல்லோ உளுத்த மரமானேன்
தன்னை மறந்தார்க்குத் தாய்தந்தை யில்லையடி
தன்னை மறக்காமற் றாயாரு முண்டானால்
உன்னை மறக்காமல் என் கண்னம்மா
ஒத்திருந்து வாழேனோ ? 28

காயப் பதிதனிலே கந்தமூலம் வாங்கி
மாயப் பணிபூண்டு வாழுஞ் சரக்கெடுத்தே
ஆயத் துறைதனிலே ஆராய்ந்து பார்க்குமுன்னே
மாயச் சுருளோலை என் கண்ணம்மா
மடிமேல் விழுந்ததென்ன ? 29

சித்திரத்தை குத்தியல்லோ சிலையை எழுதிவைத்து
உத்திரத்தைக் காட்டாமல் ஊரம்ப லமானேன்
உத்திரத்தைக் காட்டியல்லோ ஊரம்ப லமானால்
சித்திரமும் வேறாமோ என் கண்னம்மா!
சிலையுங் குலையாதோ! 30