Saturday, June 20, 2009

sanatsujAtIyam - Based on the bhAshya of SrI Sankara bhagavatpAda - Chapter 4


Based on the bhAshya of SrI Sankara bhagavatpAda


yattacchukram mahajjyotirdIpyamAnam mahadyaSaH
yadvai devA upAsate yasmAdarko virAjate
yoginastam prapaSyanti bhagavantam sanAtanam 1

1.Those who practise jnAnayoga realize the eternal Lord (brahman) who is pure, supreme effulgence, resplendent, and supreme glory itself. The gods worship Him. The sun shines because of Him.
Note. The Sruti says, "By its light everything here shines", "Its name is supreme glory", "Illumined by whom the sun shines".

SukrAd brahma prabhavati brahma SukreNa vardhate
Tat Sukram jyotishAm madhye"taptam tapati tApanam
yoginastam prapaSyanti bhagavantam sanAtanam 2

2. From the pure brahman hiraNyagarbha is born. This hiraNyagarbha grows into virAT. That pure brahman shines by its own luminosity. It does not need to be illumined by the sun and other luminaries, but it is what enables them to shine. The yogis realize this brahman.
Note. hiraNyagarbha is consciousness associated with the totality of the subtle bodies. virAt is consciousness associated with the totality of the gross bodies. Pure unconditioned brahman is the substratum of both these.

pUrNAt pUrNam uddharanti pUrNAt pUrNam pracakshate
haranti pUrNAt pUrNam ca pUrNenaivAvaSishyate
yoginastam prapaSyanti bhagavantam sanAtanam 3

3. From the supreme Self which is not limited by time, space and other objects emerges the jIva who is also declared by the wise to be unlimited, being identical with the supreme Self. When the jIva who is associated with the subtle and gross bodies realizes that he is separate from those bodies, he remains as the supreme Self which is non-dual,, infinite, consciousness, and bliss.
Note. This Sloka conveys the same idea as br. up. 5.1 -

pUrNamadaH pUrNamidam pUrNAt pUrNamudacyate
pUrNasya pUrNamAdAya pUrNamevAvaSishyate

brahman, the cause of the universe, indicated by the word "adaH" is infinite. brahman as the indwelling self of the jIva is also in reality infinite, because it is the same brahman. When the jIva who, due to ignorance, thinks of himself as a limited being, realizes that he is none other than the infinite brahman, there remains no separate jIva and there is only the infinite brahman.

yathAkASe"vakASo'sti gangAyAm vIcayo yathA
tadvaccarAcaram sarvam brahmaNyutpadya LIyate
yoginastam prapaSyanti bhagavantam sanAtanam 4

4. Just as ether accommodates everything, just as the river Ganga has waves, so also the entire universe of movables and immovables arises from brahman and merges in brahman. Yogis see that eternal supreme Being.

Apo"thAdbhyaH salilam tasya madhye
ubhau devI SiSriyAte"ntarikshe
AdadhrIcIh savishUcIrvasAnA-
vubhau bibharti pRthivIm divam ca
yoginastam prapaSyanti bhagavantam sanAtanam 5

5. Water was first created. "Water" stands for all the five subtle elements. Then "salilam", which stands for all the gross bodies, was created. In the midst of these gross bodies, in the space within the heart of these created beings, two resplendent beings, the jIvAtmA and paramAtmA, dwell, covering all the cardinal and other directions. The jIvAtmA, unaware of his real nature as non-dual brahman who is Existence-Consciousness-Bliss identifies himself with his body and experiences joy, sorrow, etc., according to his karma. This is mentioned in this verse as "supporting the earth". The other, paramAtmA, supports heaven, i.e., remains in his own real divine nature as brahman. The yogis see this eternal supreme Being.

This conveys the same idea as muNDaka up. 3.1.1 - dvA suparNA -
which means: "Two birds that are ever inseparable and have similar names, embrace the same tree. Of these, one eats the fruits of different tastes (experiences joy, sorrow, etc.,) and the other watches without eating".

cakre rathasya tishThantam dhruvasya avyayakarmaNah
ketumantam vahantyaSvAH tam divyam ajaram divi
yoginastam prapaSyanti bhagavantam sanAtanam 6

6. The three worlds are the chariot of the supreme Being who is eternal and whose actions are fruitful. The body of the wise man is his chariot. With the help of this he attains to the effulgent Being who is beyond old age and death. The horses of the chariot (in the form of the senses) take him to the world of light. The yogis see this eternal Being.
This conveys the same idea as kaThopanishad, 1.3.3 & 4 - AtmAnam rathinam viddhi -

na sAdRSye tishThati rUpamasya
na cakshushA paSyati kaScidenam
manIshayAtho manasA hRdA ca
ya enam viduramRtAste bhavanti7
yoginastam prapaSyanti bhagavantam sanAtanam 6

7. There is nothing comparable to the form of this supreme Being. None can see with his eyes Him who is within as the Self. He can be known only through the heart and the intellect. He who knows this supreme Being as identical with his own self becomes immortal. The yogis see this eternal Being.

dvAdaSa pUgAh sarito devarakshitA madhvISate
tadanuvidhAyinastadA samcaranti ghoram
yoginastam prapaSyanti bhagavantam sanAtanam 8

8. The group of twelve, namely, the five subtle organs of sense, the subtle organs of action, mind and intellect, are restless and are protected by the Lord. They go after their respective objects which are like honey to them. Because of this they are the cause of transmigration. Therefore the organs and the mind and intellect should be withdrawn from external objects and concentrated on the Self. The yogis see this eternal Lord.

tadardhamAsam pibati sancitam bhramaro madhu
ISAnaH sarvabhUteshu havirbhUtamakalpayat
yoginastam prapaSyanti bhagavantam sanAtanam 9

9. The bee collects honey during six months of the year and consumes it during the remaining six months. Similarly the jIva experiences in another birth the results of karma performed in a previous birth. The Lord has created food (all worldly joys and sorrows) for all beings which they get according to their karma. The yogis see this eternal Lord.

hiraNyaparNam aSvattham abhipatya hyapakshakAH
tatra te pakshiNo bhUtvA prapatanti yathAsukham
yoginastam prapaSyanti bhagavantam sanAtanam 10

10. The wingless beings, i.e., the ignorant human beings, who are devoid of the wing of knowledge of the Self, dwell on the peepal tree with leaves which are agreeable and beautiful. That is, they revel in worldly pleasures. Then, when they are born in bodies which are conducive to spiritual advancement, they attain knowledge of the Self and are liberated. The yogis see this eternal Lord.

apAnam girati prANaH prANam girati candramAH
Adityo girate candramAdityam girate paraH
yoginastam prapaSyanti bhagavantam sanAtanam 11

11. apAna is merged in prANa. prANa is merged in the moon, i.e., the mind. The moon (mind) is merged in the sun (intellect). The sun (intellect) is merged in the supreme brahman. Yogis see that eternal Lord.
The process of withdrawing all activities and thoughts and entering into samAdhi is described here.

ekam pAdam notkshipati salilAddhamsa uccaran
tam cet satatam utkshipenna mRtyurnAmRtam bhavet
yoginastam prapaSyanti bhagavantam sanAtanam 12

12. hamsa, (the one who destroys avidyA along with its effects), i.e., the supreme Being, remaining beyond this universe made up of the elements and all created bodies, is also in the universe in the form of jIvas. If not, there would be no jIva, no samsAra, no death, and no immortality. The yogis see this eternal Lord.

angushThamAtraH purusho"ntarAtmA
lingasya yogena sa yAti nityam
tam Isam Idyam anukalpam Adyam
paSyanti mUDhA na virAjamAnam
yoginastam prapaSyanti bhagavantam sanAtanam 13

13. That non-dual Existence-consciousness-Bliss, the indwelling Self of all, who is infinite, the supreme Being, transmigrates (apparently) with the subtle body of the size of one's thumb as the limiting adjunct. Those devoid of discrimination, who identify themselves with their two bodies (gross and subtle) do not see that Lord who rules over every one, who is worthy of worship, who appears as all beings, and who is resplendent. The yogis see that eternal Lord.

gUhanti sarpA iva gahvareshu
kshayam nItvA svena vRttena martyAn
te vipramuhyanti janA vimUDhAh
tairdattA bhogA mohayante bhavAya
yoginastam prapaSyanti bhagavantam sanAtanam 14

14. Just as snakes come out of their holes, kill men with their poisonous bite and go back and hide in their holes, so also, the senses, going out to their respective objects which are like poison, destroy the man. He becomes deluded by the sense-objects and continues in the transmigratory cycle. They do not see the supreme Being because of delusion, but the yogis see Him.

asAdhanA vApi sasAdhanA vA
samAnam etaddRSyate mAnusheshu
samAnam etad amRtasyetarasya
yuktAstatra madhva utsam samApuh
yoginastam prapaSyanti bhagavantam sanAtanam 15

The same AtmA dwells in those who have acquired control of the senses, control of the mind and the other preliminary requisites for a spiritual aspirant, as well as in those who have not acquired these. The AtmA is the same in the states of bondage as well as liberation. Those who have acquired these qualities attain the supreme bliss that is brahman. The yogis see this eternal Lord.

ubhau lokau vidyayA vyApya yAnti
tadAhutam cAhutam agnihotram
mA te brAhmI laghutAmAdadhIta
prajnAnam syAnnAma dhIrA labhante
yoginastam prapaSyanti bhagavantam sanAtanam 16

16. brahman which is infinite bliss pervades this world and the other world by knowledge. By the attainment of the knowledge of the Self the result of agnihotra (fire-sacrifice) is attained even without the performance of the sacrifice, i.e., the results of all rituals are attained by the knowledge of the Self alone. But it is not the transient result of rituals that is attained by knowledge but one realizes the supreme brahman as one's own self. brahman is known as prajnAnam or Consciousness.

evamrUpo mahAnAtmA pAvakam purusho giran
yo vai tam purusham veda tasyehAtmA na rishyate
yoginastam prapaSyanti bhagavantam sanAtanam 17

17. Such a person who knows that he is the Self who is pure consciousness and infinite, remains as brahman. Just as fire consumes everything, the jIvAtmA absorbs within itself the subtle body which is the effect along with its cause. The subtle body of such a person is not destroyed, meaning, it does not go out to take another body as in the case of the unenlightened. Yogis see this eternal Lord.
Note. br.up.3.2.11 says that when a liberated person dies, his subtle body merges in him.

tasmAt sadA satkRtaH syA-
nna mRtyuramRtam kutaH
satyAnRte satyasamAnubandhinI
sataSca yonirasataScaika eva 18
yoginastam prapaSyanti bhagavantam sanAtanam 18

18. One who always identifies himself with the Reality (brahman) remains as brahman. There is no death for him. When there is no death, where is the question of immortality? All that has empirical reality is superimposed on brahman, the only Reality, like illusory silver on shell. Both the empirical and the illusory have the Reality as substratum.

angushThamAtraH purusho"ntarAtmA
na dRSyate'sau hRdaye nivishTaH
ajaScaro divArAtram atandritaSca
sa tam matvA kavirAste prasannaH 19

19. The indwelling self, of the size of the thumb, resides in the heart. It cannot be seen in its real nature as non-dual Existence-Consciousness-Bliss. It is unborn and is the self of all the moving and unmoving. The wise man knows it by negating the five sheaths by constant meditation day and night. He then becomes fulfilled.

tasmAcca vAyurAyAtastasmimSca pralayastathA
tasmAdagniSca somaSca tasmAcca prANa AgataH 20
tatpratishThA tadamRtam lokAstad brahma tadyaSaH
bhUtAni jajnire tasmAt pralayam yAnti tatra ca 21

20 and 21. From it originates air and merges in it. Fire, soma, prANa, are born from it. It is the support of all. It is immortal. It is all the worlds. It is brahman. It is glory. All beings are born from it and merge in it.

ubhau ca devau pRthivIm divam ca
diSaSca Sukram bhuvanam bibharti
tasmAddiSaH saritaSca sravanti
tasmAtsamudrA vihitA mahAntaH 22

22. The pure brahman supports jiva, ISvara, Earth, Heaven, the directions and the whole universe. From it flow the directions, rivers and the mighty oceans.

yaH sahasram sahasrANAm pakshAnAhRtya sampatet
nAntam gacchet kAraNasya yadyapi syAnmanojavaH
yoginastam prapaSyanti bhagavantam sanAtanam 23

23. Even if one has thousands of wings and has the speed of the mind, one will not be able to reach the end of the Cause of the universe. Yogis see this eternal Lord.

adarSane tishThati rUpamasya
paSyanti cainam susamiddhasattvAH
hIno manIshI manasAbhipaSyet
ya enam viduramRtAste bhavanti 24

24. The form of this Being is beyond sight. Those with well illumined minds see Him. The wise man who is free from attachment, aversion, etc., realizes Him in his mind. Those who know Him become immortal.

imam yaH sarvabhUteshu AtmAnamanupaSyati
anyatrAnyatra yukteshu sa kim Socet tataH param 25

25. He who sees this Self which is in all bodies, what sorrow will he thereafter have?

yathodapAne mahati sarvataH samplutodake
evam bhUteshu sarveshu braahmaNasya viSeshataH 26

26. For the knower of brahman there is no need for anything else in the world, just as there is no need to go about in search of water when the reservoirs are full.

aham evAsmi vo matA pita putro'smyaham punaH
AtmAham asmi sarvasya yacca naasti yadasti ca 27

27. I myself am your mother, father, as well as son. I am the self of all that exists and all that exists not.

pitAmaho'smi sthaviraH pita putraSca bharata
mamaiva yUyamAtmasthA na me yUyam na cApyaham 28

28. O Bharata, I am the old grandsire, father and son. You are all mine as the Self. Again, you are not mine, nor am I yours.
The apparently contradictory statements are to be understood in the same manner as in Bhagavadgita, Ch.9. verses 4 and 5. From the point of view of absolute reality there is none other than brahman and so there are no relationships at all. But from the empirical point of view all these exist.

Atmaiva sthAnam mama janma cAtmA
ajaScaro divArAtramatandrito"ham
mAm vijnAya kavirAste prasannaH 29

29. The AtmA is my support. Everything is born from the AtmA. I am the warp and woof of the world. I am established in my own glory which is devoid of birth and death. I am birthless and always active and untiring. Knowing me the wise one remains in bliss.

aNoraNIyAn sumanAH sarvabhUteshvavasthitaH
pitaram sarvabhUtAnAm pushkare nihitam viduH 30

30. I am subtler than the subtlest. I am auspicious-free from aversion, pride, envy, grief, delusion, etc., and of the nature of non-dual brahman which is pure consciousness, existence, and bliss. I am the father of all beings. The wise know me as dwelling in the hearts of all beings as their self.

End of Chapter-4

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